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People usually associate jaguars with the Pantanal. For a long time, this biome, together with the Amazon, was an excellent shelter for populations of large spotted felines. However, this is no longer so. Although the Pantanal is Brazil’s best-preserved biome, jaguars occupy just 47% of this biome and the effective size of the population is estimated at less than 1,000 individuals. In the last 100 years, great threats have led to a dramatic reduction of their area of occupation. Hunting for retaliation, preventive, and recreational purposes have been and still are the main problems leading to the reduction of populations. Between the 1950s and the 1980s, fur trade led to a great reduction of jaguars. Since the advent of cattle breeding in the Pantanal, jaguars have been in conflict with farmers when attacking domestic flocks. When this happens, many farmers end up killing these felines. Currently, this practice is a major threat to the survival of the species. Additionally, loss of habitat associated with the expansion of agriculture and cattle breeding have also threatened the long-term maintenance of viable populations.